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The third century: crisis or continuity?
The second half of the third century was a time of crisis
During the reign of Gallienus (260 - 268 AD) large parts of the empire broke away under independent rulers: the Gallic Empire in the west and the Palmyrene Empire in the east.
Other problems were usurpations by pretenders to the throne, in some areas a drop in agricultural production and a general decline of long distance trade. After 270 AD the silver coinage contained hardly any silver at all and an unchecked inflation set in.
And yet, the
This website will not provide a comprehensive survey of third century history. I will discuss three themes: coin circulation in the western Empire from 260 to circa 300 AD, the context and functions of Forum Hadriani in the Civitas Cananefatium and (last but not least) continuity and crisis during the third century AD in the Dutch River Area. The content of this website is based on my publications in various journals.